Articles are a unique type of adjective. Only three articles are used in English: the, a, and an. Articles always precede any other adjectives modifying the noun.
Rules of Articles
Indefinite Articles: A is called the indefinite article. A refers to an unspecified or unknown thing. It can also indicate a single thing or one out of many. A never refers to plural nouns.
- Is that car a 1969 Mustang?
- My sister wants to be a doctor.
- I need to buy a cookie sheet.
- But: I need to buy two cookie sheets.
You should also repeat the a when you are talking about two separate things.
- I need to buy a cookie sheet and a jelly roll pan.
If the indefinite article precedes a noun or adjective that begins with a vowel sound, English uses the form an for ease of pronunciation
- An exam book
- An angry man.
The test for whether to use a or an is not whether the noun begins with a vowel (a, e, i, o, and u), but whether it begins with a vowel sound or consonant sound when pronounced. Words beginning with the letter y, sometimes considered a vowel, take a rather than an.
- An honest mistake (Honest begins with a vowel sound: on-est.)
- A CIA agent (CIA begins with a consonant sound: see-eye-ay.)
- An FBI agent (FBI begins with vowel sound: eff-bee-eye.)
- A yellow scarf, a yard, a yodeling contest (Yellow begins with a consonant sound: y-uh. So does yard and yodeling.)
- A UFO, a university (UFO and university begin with a consonant sound: you; also known as the hard u sound.)
- An unidentified flying object, an uncomplicated procedure (Nearly all un-words begin with the vowel sound: uh-n.)
|Noun begins with a consonant sound||Noun begins with a vowel sound|
|a bird||an abacus|
|a car||an error|
|a lemon||an issue|
|a telephone||an order|
Gray Area: Articles and the Letter H
The letter H has a varied construction when there is a distinction between a hard h sound and a silent h sound. It used to be correct to say “an historical novel,” but the contemporary way is given in the table that follows.
|Hard sound||Silent sound|
|a historical novel||an herb|
|a hickory nut||an honest person|
|a horse||an honor|
Definite Articles: The is called the definite article. The refers to a specific or already known thing. It can refer to singular or plural nouns:
- The three cars parked across the street belong to my neighbor.
- The dog chased the cat up the tree.
- The kittens are playing with the ball of string.
A/an is often used for the first mention of a thing, and the thereafter:
- My father gave me a watch. The watch belonged to my grandfather.
- A coat hung in the closet. The coat was torn and stained.
In some cases, nouns do not use articles. In general observations or statements of universal fact, no articles are needed:
- Elephants are mammals.
- Milk is high in calcium.
- But: The calcium found in dairy products is easily absorbed. (A specific type of calcium.)
Articles are one of the least logical aspects of English. Why is it correct to say “read Chapter 2” but “read the second chapter,” or “I have a cold” but “I have the flu”? A few general guidelines follow:
- Most proper nouns do not need articles. (Major exceptions are names of rivers, oceans, and certain famous sites or geographical features: the Rocky Mountains, the Empire State Building, the Pacific Ocean.)
- Most noncount or collective nouns do not need articles unless they are being used in a specific sense: “I like cheese.” (no article), but “The cheese they make in Wisconsin is my favorite.”
- If referring to something indefinite and singular, use a/an.
- If referring to something indefinite and plural, do not use an article.
- If referring to something definite, whether singular or plural, use the.
Gray Area: British versus American Article Usage
There are some differences between British and American English and these differences yield some different constructions in certain cases.
|going to hospital||going to the hospital|
|he is in hospital||he is in the hospital|
|she is going to university||she is going to a university|
This is not to say that the British always leave out articles—that would not be true. The particular cases cited above, however, apply.
Rules of Articles in English Grammar
Fill in the blanks with a, an, the, or no article.
1. I bought _____ new skirt and _____ new pair of jeans. _____ skirt is blue, but _____ jeans are black.
2. Sergei drives _____ yellow Beetle. He collects _____ cars. He traded _____ old Chevette for _____ Beetle.
3. My friend Aaron is _____ farmer. He grows _____ strawberries and blackberries.
4. Aaron’s farm is in _____ California. He has _____ antique farmhouse located in _____ valley.
5. _____ farmhouse was in bad shape when he found it. You would not believe all _____ work he had to do to fix it up.
6. Fortunately, most people like _____ strawberries, so he makes _____ good money.
7. He is not _____ rich man, but _____ money he makes keeps him comfortable.
8. He had ____ truck and ____ fishing boat ready to go.
9. ____ ranger told us to park in ____ boat ramp area.
10. She had been cured of _____ cancer.
11. We painted the room ____ off-white color.
12. She had on ____ green uniform.