Past Perfect Tense in Hindi

Past Perfect Tense का प्रयोग ऐसे कार्यों हेतु किया जाता है जो भूतकाल में पूर्ण हो गए थे। सामान्यतया भूतकाल में जब दो कार्य एक के बाद दूसरा पूर्ण हो गया था, तो पहले पूर्ण हुए कार्य हेतु, Past Perfect तथा दूसरे पूर्ण हुए कार्य हेतु Past Indefinite का प्रयोग किया जाता है। जैसे :

  • मेरे स्टेशन पहुँचने से पूर्व ट्रेन जा चुकी थी ।
  • तुम्हारे सो जाने के बाद सीता यहाँ आई थी।
  • गाड़ी आने के बाद, वह स्टेशन पहुँचा था।

Past Perfect Tense in Hindi

इस तरह के वाक्यों का अंग्रेजी अनुवाद करने हेतु निम्न Sentence Structure प्रयुक्त होता है:

Subject + had + V – III + (before / after ) + …. (Past Indefinite ) + …..

  • मेरे स्टेशन पहुँचने से पूर्व ट्रेन जा चुकी थी । The train had departed before I reached the station.
  • तुम्हारे सो जाने के बाद सीता यहाँ आई थी। Sita came here after you had slept.
  • गाड़ी आने के बाद, वह स्टेशन पहुँचा था। He reached the station, after the train had arrived.
  • डॉक्टर के आने से पूर्व मरीज मर चुका था। The patient had died before the doctor came.
  • उसके कॉलेज पहुँचने से पूर्व छात्र कक्षा से जा चुके थे। The students had left the class before he reached college.

(1) Past perfect में had के साथ VIII (Verb की Ill form) लगाई जाती है।

(2) यह दो भूतकाल की घटनाओं के सन्दर्भ में वाक्य है तो पहले पूर्ण होने वाले कार्य हेतु Past Perfect Tense का प्रयोग तथा बाद में पूर्ण होने वाले कार्य हेतु Past Indefinite का प्रयोग किया जाता है। After / before / when इत्यादि conjunctions का प्रयोग वाक्य के सन्दर्भ को देखकर किया जाता है।

Past Perfect Tense का प्रयोग दो भूतकाल की घटनाओं में ही हो, ऐसा नहीं है। यह Past Perfect का सामान्य प्रयोग है। Past Perfect का use अन्य स्थितियों में आगे बताया गया है।

Negative and Interrogative Sentences

Negative: Subject + had + not + V-III+ Object.

Interrogative: Had + Subject + V-III + Object ?

past perfect tense in hindi

Use of Past Perfect Tense in Hindi

(1) Past Perfect का प्रयोग निम्न प्रकार के वाक्यों में भी किया जाता है। ऐसे वाक्यों के दो भाग नहीं होते, लेकिन वाक्यों को देखने से स्पष्ट होता है कि कार्य, वर्तमान से पूर्व ही पूर्ण हो चुका है। जैसे :

  • उसने मुझे पहले ही सूचित कर दिया था। He had already informed me.
  • मैंने उसे पहले ही चेतावनी दे दी थी। I had already warned him.
  • वह बहुत पहले ही वहाँ पहुँच चुकी थी। She had reached there much earlier.
  • मैं इससे पूर्व जयपुर नहीं गया था । I had never been to Jaipur before.

 (2) जैसा पूर्व में बताया गया है, दो ऐसी घटनाओं या कार्यों हेतु जो एक निश्चित समय या घटना के बाद, दूसरी घटना या कार्य पूर्ण हुआ है। जैसे :

  • I had reached college before the Principal came.
  • She had completed her work before I reached there.
  • The chief guest had arrived before we reached there.
  • Ram had slept before it struck seven.
  • When I reached the station, the train had already left.
  • They ran out to play after they had completed their class work.
  • As soon as they had finished their class work they ran out to play.

(a) Conjunction; when before, after, as soon as इत्यादि का प्रयोग वाक्य के सन्दर्भ के अनुसार किया जाता है।

(b) यदि दो कार्य एक के बाद दूसरा एक sequence में पूर्ण हुए हों तो दोनों वाक्यों में Past indefinite का प्रयोग किया जाता है। Past Indefinite की विवेचना में इसे समझाया गया है।

(3) Past Perfect का प्रयोग Verbs; hope, expect, think, intend, want, suppose के साथ ऐसी Past आशाओं, इच्छाओं, कल्पनाओं के सन्दर्भ में किया जाता है जो पूर्ण नहीं हुईं। जैसे :

  • We had hoped that you would cooperate us. (but you didn’t cooperate.)
  • I had intended to go to USA last year. (but I couldn’t go.)
  • She had thought of paying us a visit. (but due to some reasons she couldn’t visit.)
  • We had expected that she would attend the party. (but she didn’t attend.)
  • They had wanted to donate some money, but none was present there. (so they couldn’t donate any money.)

(4) Direct से Indirect Narration में परिवर्तित करते समय Past Indefinite एव Present Perfect को Past Perfect में बदला जाता है। (When Reporting verb is in the Past) जैसे :

(a) She said to me, “I have already read that novel.”

She told me that she had already read that novel.

(b) He said to me, “Tony died two days ago.”

He told me that Tony had died two days before.

(5) Past Perfect का प्रयोग ऐसे action हेतु since / for / always के साथ किया जा सकता है जो at the time of speaking (वक्ता के बोलते समय) से पूर्व भूतकाल में शुरू हो चुके थे। जैसे :

  • Ram had been a soldier for ten years.
  • Ram had been a soldier since he was seventeen.
  • Jackob had waited for an hour, was very angry with his wife, when she eventually turned up.
  • Jackob had waited since five o’clock, was very angry with his wife, when he eventually turned up.

(6) Conditional Sentences में भी Past Perfect का प्रयोग किया जाता है। जैसे :

  • यदि वह मुझसे मिलता तो मैं उसकी मदद करता। If he had met me, I would have helped him.
  • यदि वह मुझे सूचित करता तो मैं वहाँ अवश्य जाता । If he had informed me, I would have gone there positively.
  • यदि वह मेरे पास आती तो मैं उसे एक उपहार देता । If she had come to me, I would have given her a gift.

इस तरह के वाक्य यह स्पष्ट करते हैं कि कार्य नहीं हुआ। यह एक महत्त्वपूर्ण Structure है, छात्रों को ध्यान से समझना चाहिए।

If + Subject + had + V-III +…+ would have +V-III +…

इस तरह के वाक्यों के पहले भाग में had + VIII दूसरे भाग में would have के साथ Verb की III form का प्रयोग किया जाता है।

  • If he had come to me, I would have helped him.
  • Had he come to me, I would have helped him.

इन दोनों वाक्यों का अर्थ समान है, कोई अन्तर नहीं है।

Important: The Past Perfect is also the past equivalent of the Simple Past Tense, and is used when the narrator or subject looks back on earlier action from a certain time in the past. -A Practical English Grammar Thomson and Martinet

Tom was 23 when our story begins. His father had died five years before and since then Tom had lived alone. His father had advised him not to get married till he was 35 and Tom intended to follow this.

Note the Difference of Meaning in the Following Sentences

  • She heard voices and realised that there were three people in the next room.(They were still there.)
  • She saw empty glasses and cups and realised that three people had been in the room. (They were no longer there.)
  • He arrived at 2.30 and was told to wait in the VIP lounge. (He received instructions after his arrival.)
  • He arrived at 2.30. He had been told to wait in the VIP lounge. (He received instructions before arrival or possibly before the journey started.)

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