“An Adverb Clause is one which does the work of an adverb to some Verb, Adjective, or Adverb in some other clause.” (Nesfield) Like an Adverb it qualifies some verb, Adjective or Adverb in another clause.
Adverb Clause Types and Examples
The following are its Adverbial functions:
- Adverb Clause of Time
- Adverb Clause of Place
- Adverb Clause of Purpose
- Adverb Clause of Cause or Reason
- Adverb Clause of Condition
- Adverb Clause of Result
- Adverb Clause of Comparison
- Adverb Clause of Supposition.
Adverb Clause of Time
Adverb Clause of Time shows time and begins with Adverbs of time like ‘When’, ‘Whenever’, ‘While’, ‘After’, ‘Before’, ‘Since’, ‘As’, etc.
- I shall go with you when you return from Kanpur.
“when you return from Kanpur” is Adverb Clause of Time because it shows time.
- I shall come whenever you need my help.
- Do not disturb while the patient is sleeping.
- He reached here after the clock had struck ten.
- Take rest before you are tired.
- I have not been well since I returned from America.
- Apply the brakes as I give you the signal.
- No sooner did I enter the room than the thief bolted away.
Adverb Clause of Place
Adverb Clause of Place points to place and begins with Adverbs of place like ‘Where’, ‘Wherever’, ‘Whence’, ‘Whither’, etc.
- You should stand where you are.
“where you are” is Adverb Clause of Place because it points to place.
- I shall purchase the book wherever it may be found.
- Return at once whence you came.
Adverb Clause of Purpose
Adverb Clause of Purpose points to some purpose and begins with that, so that, lest, etc.
- He worked very hard that he may pass.
“that he may pass” is Adverb Clause of Purpose because it shows purpose.
- Go quickly lest you should miss the train.
- Forgive so that you may be forgiven.
Adverb Clause of Cause or Reason
Adverb Clause of Cause or Reason points to cause or reason and begins with because, since, as, for, that, etc.
- I must take rest because I am tired.
“because I am tired” is Adverb Clause of Reason.
- Since you are so clever, I cannot trust you.
- As I am indisposed, I cannot attend the college today.
- I am glad that you have come in time.
Adverb Clause of Condition
(1) Adverb Clause of Condition shows condition and begins with If, Whether, Unless, Provided, On condition, etc. As:
- I shall go if you come in time.
“if you come in time” is Adverb Clause of Condition.
- I shall not help you unless you promise to work very hard.
- You must go whether you receive my reply or not.
- I can forgive you on condition that you do not repeat the crime.
(2) Sometimes Adverb Clause of condition has the connective ‘If’ understood. As:
- Had I not seen it with my own eyes, I would not have believed it.
Here “Had I not” means “If I had not”
- Were he more honest, he would have been happier.
Here “Were he” means “If he were”.
(3) If the Relative Pronoun or the Relative Adverb does not have its Antecedent before it, the clause beginning with it can be an Adverb Clause of Condition. As:
- I shall go whatever happens.
- We cannot reach before sunset whichever train we catch.
- However you try, you cannot deceive me.
Adverb Clause of Result
(1) Adverb Clause of Result points to some result and often begins with ‘that’, preceded by ‘so’ or ‘such’. It can also begin with ‘therefore’. As:
- He worked so hard that he secured first division.
“that he secured first division” is Adverb Clause of Result.
- He is so saintly that everybody respects him.
- He worked hard so he passed.
- He worked in such a defective manner that he failed to get success.
- I worked hard, therefore I passed.
(2) Sometimes the connective ‘that’ may be understood also.
- He is so tired, * he cannot stand.
In this sentence ‘that’ is understood.
Adverb Clause of Comparison
There are two kinds of Adverb Clause of comparison.
- Adverb Clause of Comparison of Degree.
- Adverb Clause of Comparison of Manner.
Adverb Clause of Comparison of Degree: It shows comparison of state or situation and often begins with the Subordinating conjunction ‘than’ or Relative Adverb ‘as’. As:
- He is not so foolish as his father thinks.
“as his father thinks” is Adverb Clause of Comparison of degree.
- Her heart is as pure as her face is beautiful.
- Your health is better than it was before.
In Adverb Clause of Comparison the Verb often remains understood. As:
- I am a better swimmer than you (are).
Here Verb ‘are’ is understood.
- You have visited a larger number of foreign countries than I (have).
Adverb Clause of Comparison of Manner: It shows comparison of manner, and often begins with the Relative Adverb ‘as’.
- As you earn so you must spend.
“as you earn” is Adverb Clause of Comparison of manner.
- He did as he pleased.
Adverb Clause of Supposition
It points to some supposition and often begins with the Subordinating conjunction ‘Though’, ‘Although’ or ‘Even if’. As:
- Although he was tired, he finished the work before sunset.
“Although he was tired” is Adverb Clause of Supposition.
- Though he is poor, he is honest.
- Do not be depressed, even if you fail.